Jiao Xun’s historiography and literature

2022-05-05 0 By

Among the qianjia scholars of the Qing Dynasty, Jiao Xun was one of the most accomplished scholars.He was not only famous in the fields of yi Learning and Confucian Classics, but also made great achievements in the fields of history and literature.(1) Jiao Xun’s contribution to historiography was first reflected in the compilation of local Chronicles and local documents of yangzhou, his hometown.In the 11th year of Jiaqing, at the invitation of Yi Bingshou, the then governor of Yangzhou, Jiao Xun began to undertake the compilation of Yangzhou Map Classics, Yangzhou Literary Abstracts and Yangzhou Official Records.Faced with this heavy work, Jiao Xun first carefully sorted out the geographical evolution, scenic spots, wonders of celebrities, stone, arts and literature of Yangzhou.As a famous scholar of qianjia period, JiaoXun textual research of the time, is very good, he first and then another famous scholar Jiang Fan cooperation, involved in detail from weeks Qin Hantang to tang yuan/all kinds of historical data, to yangzhou to coordinate, to for level of dynasties, the ancient since all kinds of important events occurred in yangzhou, and makes them.Yangzhou Tujing, compiled into eight volumes, enables people to understand the history of Yangzhou by reading this book.During his extensive reading of historical books, Jiao Xun found that Beihu, near his ancestral home, was a place full of great men and wonders, and places of historic interest. Unfortunately, no one had sorted out beihu’s historical sites, geography, deeds of celebrities and writings.Therefore, Jiao Xun himself made a systematic arrangement of the water system pattern, geographical changes, and customs and products of Beihu Lake. He also extensively collected biographies and writings of senior officials, generals, literati, and scholars who came out of the area in history, and finally compiled a book called Beihu Xiaozhi.Ruan Yuan, who also grew up near The North Lake since childhood, praised Jiao Xun after seeing the book, not only thinking that the book played a good effect of promoting his hometown, but also that Jiao Xun showed his talent as an excellent historian in writing this book.With the deepening understanding of yangzhou’s history and local documents, as well as the increasingly rich experience in compiling local Chronicles, Jiao Xun also creatively put forward many of his own theoretical methods on the basis of timely summing up his experience.For example, when Yi Bingshou instructed Jiao Xun to compile Yangzhou Wencui, his original intention was to include only articles written by people from Yangzhou, in order to show the strong cultural atmosphere of Yangzhou.However, jiao Xun thought that this kind of compilation was not appropriate after he had a look around.In his opinion, it is not enough to fully show the local culture if only the articles of Yangzhou people are included. Instead, all the biographies, epitaphs, lines, articles, preludes, letters and other documents related to Yangzhou people should be comprehensively collected and sorted out, and then compiled into books.For this reason, Jiao Xun extensively collected more than 300 of the above kinds of documents and compiled the Record of Yangzhou Foot Zheng in 27 volumes, thus comprehensively and objectively showing the cultural and educational atmosphere and cultural style of Yangzhou at that time.The experience of compiling such books as Yangzhou Tujing, Beihu Xiaozhi, Yangzhou Zhuzheng Record and Han Ji not only enriched jiao Xun’s experience in local Chronicles and document compilation, but also practically improved his knowledge of historiography.Before Jiao Xun, Dai Zhen and Zhang Xuecheng had a serious disagreement on the compilation of local Chronicles: Dai Zhen held that the compilation of local Chronicles should take geographical evolution as the core;Zhang Xuecheng believes that local Chronicles should not become special geographical books, but should pay more attention to the cutting of historical documents, highlighting the cultural significance.In between, Jiao Xun put forward a very objective and balanced theory.In his opinion, local Chronicles should not only be connected with the past and the present to demonstrate their historical value and significance, but also be reliable interpretations of the geography of the time.Therefore, Jiao Xun also played a key role in the compilation of The Annals of Yangzhou Prefecture. Together with yao Wentian, Bai Rong and other scholars, he compiled a set of records of Yangzhou Prefecture with clear style, proper detail, comprehensive collection and careful collation, leaving precious historical data for later generations.Another important contribution of Jiao Xun in the field of historiography is the orthodoxy he put forward in zuo Zhuan bu Shu of the Spring and Autumn Period.Since the eastern Han Dynasty, the influence of Zuo Zhuan gradually surpassed that of Gong Yang and Gu Liang, and a group of scholars such as Jia Kui, Fu Qian, Xu Shu and Ying Rong annotated zuo Zhuan’s famous works.Among them, The Spring and Autumn Classics by Du Yu was the most widely spread and influential, and was later selected by Kong Yingda to compile The Justice of the Five Classics.However, in Jiao Xun’s opinion, Du Yu’s ji Jie not only did not deserve such a high historical status, but also seriously misinterpreted the main meaning of the Spring and Autumn Annals.Jiao Xun believes that the core of the great righteousness of the Spring and Autumn Annals is to punish the disobedient ministers and thieves.Du Yu, on the one hand, had been a subject of the Wei regime, on the other hand, his father was sidelined by Sima Yi and died.Therefore, Du Yu should have had a sworn enemy with sima’s family.However, du Yu did not seek revenge for his father, but turned to Sima Zhao, helping the latter to complete the cause of unification, and became a traitor himself.In Jiao Xun’s view, du Yu, because of his guilty conscience, defended the ministers who killed the rebels repeatedly when annotating Zuo Zhuan, thus completely betraying the great righteousness of the Spring and Autumn Annals to punish the disobedient ministers and punish the criminals.Therefore, Zuo Zhuan annotated by Du Yu should be completely denied fundamentally.This push for orthodoxy also sparked a fad.After this, Shen Qinhan, Li Yide, Liu Wenqi and other people wrote Zuo Zhuan in order to abandon the annotation and explore the old annotation of Jia Kui, Fu Qian and other Han people.Jiao Xun is the leader of this academic trend.(2) Jiao Xun also made great achievements in the field of literature.In his later years for his own compilation of twenty-four volumes of “Carved Gu collection” for example, which included, neither Confucian classics, nor historical writings, but in his life in each period of the four hundred and twenty poems and three hundred and twenty-six articles.In fact, due to jiao Xun’s outstanding academic achievements in classics, history and other academic fields, people tend to ignore his outstanding talent in poetry and prose creation, as well as his unique views on literary theory and aesthetic taste.Jiao Xun’s poems include both ancient style poems and metrical poems.There are both chronicle poems and narration poems. He often places his feelings on poems, ode, praise, ode and inscription to express his thoughts and aspirations.Jiao xun’s more than 300 articles cover more than 24 categories, including debate, theory, explanation, theory, examination and memorization, which not only cover his academic activities in different periods of his life, but also fully show his rich life experience and life course.The reason why Jiao Xun could write so many poems with different styles is inseparable from his profound thinking on aesthetics and literary theory.Jiao Xun’s achievements in these two fields are mainly shown in his stories of Drama and Huabu Farming.Among them, “said” is JiaoXun will own the textual research history of kung fu for drama history research achievements, he through extensive collection of drama literature of various kinds of idea, since the tang and song dynasty to the peach blossom female “kill dogs advised,” and so on local opera in the story of the legend of interpretation, for example, origin, spread and evolution of them is very detailed carding and research.Jiao Xun further put forward the drama theory of “raising flowers and suppressing elegance” and the time literary theory of “the combination of form and meaning” in his book “Hua Bu Nong Tan”.”Hua Bu” is a kind of opera opposite to “Ya Bu”.The so-called “Ya bu” refers to the kunqu opera popular at that time, which was favored by the literati and officialdom and was considered an elegant form of music.”Huabu”, referring to various local operas, was also called “Random tan” at that time.As we can see from the name, the various forms of the flower department were rather devalued at that time.In fact, Kunqu opera gradually began to decline during the reign of Emperor Qianlong and Emperor Jiaqing, while Huabu became popular among the people with its easy-to-understand language and plots.Jiao Xun “yanghua restrain elegant” theory, quite for the flower ministry baobu meaning.In his opinion, artistic reality is different from the reality on the surface of life. In order to create a play full of vitality, first of all, people must be pleasing to see the characters, and then there should be enough realistic concern, so that the audience can fully substitute and understand.The main reason for the decline of Ya Bu is that it is too complicated and just a formality. On the contrary, hua Bu is more close to the audience and stimulates emotions.Jiao Xun believes that the vitality of literature lies in its continuous development and change.The literature of each era should also have its own characteristics different from those of its predecessors.Otherwise, just stagnating in the old literary form, there is no way out.Therefore, jiao xun’s evaluation of The development of Chinese literature does not focus on the past and the present, but on the book of Songs, Songs of Chu, Han fu, five character poems of the Six Dynasties, lawyers of the Tang Dynasty, song ci and Yuan Qu, and even puts Guan Hanqing’s achievements in plays on a par with Qu Yuan’s Li SAO and Li Du’s poems.Jiao Xun’s point of view was quite new at that time, and wang Guowei was greatly interested in drama and wrote the masterpiece History of Opera in Song and Yuan Dynasties because of jiao xun’s influence.Jiao Xun’s study of literature and history, not only specialized and meticulous textual research, but also expressed his talent of poetry and prose creation, and his brilliant achievements in Confucian classics, can be said to complement each other.Guangming Daily (April 02, 2022 edition 11)